Journal of Soil, Plant and Environment <p style="margin-bottom: 0.14in;"><strong><span style="color: #333333;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="background: #ffffff;">Journal of Soil, Plant and Environment (ISSN: 2957-9082) </span></span></span></span></strong><span style="color: #333333;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-weight: normal;"><span style="background: #ffffff;">is an open peer-reviewed journal that considers articles and review articles on all aspects of agricultural sciences. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists, students, academics and engineers all over the world to promote, share, and discuss various new issues and developments in different areas of agricultural sciences. </span></span></span></span></span></p> Science Research Publishers en-US Journal of Soil, Plant and Environment 2957-9082 Impact of late sowing on morphological and yield traits in 40s bread wheat <p>The unpredictability and large fluctuation of the climatic conditions in rainfed regions influences spring wheat yield and grain quality. These variations offer the opportunity for the production of better quality wheat. The effect of late sowing on wheat morphology and grain yield was studied in different 40s bread wheat at the research farm of PBG, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan during 2013-14. Forty wheat genotypes were tested under normal and late sowing in 5 × 8 alpha lattice design with three replicates. Combined analysis of variance exhibited significant genotype by environment interactions for days to heading, flag leaf area, days to maturity, plant height, spikes m<sup>-2</sup>, grains spike<sup>-1</sup>,1000-grain weight, biomass yield, grain yield and harvest index. Days to emergence, headings, maturity ranged from 9 to 12, 111 to 121 and 155 to 164 days under normal while under late planting it ranged from 25 to 29, 95 to107 and 137 to 143 days. Mean data under normal planting ranged between 77 to 125cm; 25 to 41cm<sup>2</sup>; 99 to 199; 10 to 13 cm 32 to 49; 52 to 88g; 8533 to 13667 kg, 1869 to 4681 kg; 21 to 35% whereas under late planting its range was 63 to 91 cm, 18 to 37 cm<sup>2</sup>, 57 to 137, 8 to 12 cm, 22 to 52, 36 to 75g, 2400 to 7933 kg, 540 to 2739 kg and 20 to 42% for plant height, flag leaf area, spikes m<sup>-2</sup>, spike length, grains spike<sup>-1</sup>, 1000-grain weight, biomass, grain yield and harvest index, respectively. Wheat genotypes planted at late condition took maximum days to emergence, while less number of days were reacquired for wheat genotypes planted at normal sowing date to get mature. Late planting negatively affected all yield contributing traits like; spikes m<sup>-2 </sup>(29%), grains spike<sup>-1 </sup>(18%) 1000-grain weight (29 %), biomass (55%) and grain yield (50 %). On the basis of the current exploration, it is obtained that genotype SRN 19111 was identified superior for 1000-grain weight, biomass yield and grain yield under normal planting, while genotype PR-107 exhibited higher grain yield under late planting. Therefore, these genotypes are recommended for further extensive testing.</p> Muhammad Adnan Abdullah Khan Fida Mohammad Fawad Ali Quaid Hussain Copyright (c) 2021 JOURNAL OF SOIL, PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT (JSPAE) 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 1 1 1 18 10.56946/jspae.v1i1.2 Unprecedented response of wheat to irrigation levels and various rates of Nano-black carbon <p>In Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, wheat yield is subjected to availability of water and proper rate of Nano-black carbon in soil. Delay in rain and unsuitable soil health cause severe yield reduction. Therefore this experiment was conducted to compare Irrigation levels in relation to different rate of Nano-black carbon to find out high yielding fact that could enhance wheat productivity and food security. Three different-irrigation-levels (250-mm, 275-mm and 300-mm), were compared in early growth establishment in three repeats with five different rates of Nano-black carbon (5Mg ha<sup>-1</sup>, 10Mg ha<sup>-1</sup>, 15Mg ha<sup>-1</sup>, 20Mg ha<sup>-1</sup> and 25Mg ha<sup>-1</sup>). All the other agronomic practices were kept similar for each replicate. Data was recoded on different growth parameters such as days to emergence, emergence m<sup>-2</sup>, plant height, spike length, number of spikes m<sup>-2</sup>, thousand grain weight and grain yield. The study confirmed that almost all Irrigation levels were prominent but significant reduction in different parameters was observed with variation in Nano-black carbon application that could ultimately effect soil health and productivity. From this experiment we concluded that proper rate of Nano-black carbon can significantly enhance the development of roots system which may ultimately increase the shoot growth and final yield. The present study revealed that wheat Irrigation levels (250 mm) can properly save water and increase wheat productivity in combination with Nano-black carbon addition. Different Irrigation levels retorted differently to different Nano-black carbon showing that potential did exist in Nano-black carbon for water storage and improvement of soil health under drought stress condition.</p> Imran Copyright (c) 2021 JOURNAL OF SOIL, PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT (JSPAE) 2022-01-23 2022-01-23 1 1 19 37 10.56946/jspae.v1i1.3 Impact of Phosphorous and Zinc Levels on the Productivity of Green Gram (Vigna radiate L.) <p>Mung bean is one of the important Kharif pulses in Pakistan and is grown mainly for its edible seeds; therefore, fertilizers management is an important factor for improving mungbean growth and yield. A field experiment was conducted during the summer of 2013 at Palato Farm of the University of Agriculture Peshawar, Amir Muhammad Khan Campus Mardan, to determine the effect of phosphorus (P) and Zinc (Zn) on the yield and yield component of mungbean. The experiment consisted of four levels of P (0, 25, 50, and 75 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and four levels of Zn (0, 5, 10, and 15 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). Data associated with the number of leaves and plant height illustrated that the higher number of leaves plant<sup>-1</sup> (8.8) by an average was observed when P was applied at the rate of 75 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> followed by 0 kg phosphorous (P) ha<sup>-1 </sup>(8.7) and Zn (Zn) application at the rate of 10 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>produced a maximum number of leaves plant<sup>-1</sup> (9) followed by 15 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>(8.8) where 0 kg ZN ha<sup>-1</sup> resulted in (7.7). Similarly, Zn significantly affected plant height, while P and interaction between P and Zn levels were non-significant. The higher plant height (95.1 cm) was observed when P was applied at the rate of 75 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, followed by 50 kg P ha<sup>-1 </sup>(93.6 cm). Higher plant height (95.8cm) was recorded when ZN was applied at the 5 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> followed by 10 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>(95.1cm). Higher numbers of nodules (13.1) were observed with the application of 50 kg P ha<sup>-1 </sup>followed by 75 kg P ha<sup>-1 </sup>(12.3), while the lowest (10.6) nodules were observed in the control plot. P application at the rate of 25 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> produced a higher grain yield than 75 and 50 kg ha-1 and Zn application at the rate of 5 kg ha-1 produced a higher grain yield than 10 and 15 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. Therefore, a lower rate of P 25 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and Zn 5 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>is recommended for a higher yield of mungbean in the agro-ecological condition of Mardan.</p> Aman Khan Haq Nawaz Abdul Rab Muhammad Asim Ismail Khan Fazal Munsif Copyright (c) 2021 JOURNAL OF SOIL, PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT (JSPAE) 2022-01-23 2022-01-23 1 1 38 49 10.56946/jspae.v1i1.10 Impact of Nitrogen, Zinc and Humic Acid Application on Wheat Growth, Morphological Traits, Yield and Yield Components <p>To investigate the response of wheat to different levels of nitrogen (N), zinc (Zn) and humic acid (HA), an experiment was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture, Peshawar, during 2014-15. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design having three replications. Three levels of N (80, 120 and 160 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), Zn (6, 12 and18 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and HA (5, 10 and 15 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) were used. Results showed that N application at the rate of 160 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> manifested maximum days to physiological maturity (164 days), productive tillers m<sup>-2</sup> (248), spikes m<sup>-2 </sup>(258), leaf area tiller<sup>-1</sup> (113.6 cm<sup>2</sup>), spike length (10.4 cm), grains spike<sup>-1 </sup>(52), 1000-grain weight (47.5 g), biological yield (9260 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), grain yield (3723 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and harvest index (40%). Zn treated plots at the rate of 12 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>showed maximum days to physiological maturity (162 days), productive tillers m<sup>-2</sup> (241), spikes m<sup>-2 </sup>(252), grains spike<sup>-1 </sup>(51), 1000-grain weight (45.2 g), biological yield (8843 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), grain yield (3375 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and harvest index (39 %). Similarly, HA treated plots at the rate of 12 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>revealed maximum days to physiological maturity (162 days), productive tillers m<sup>-2</sup> (238), spikes m<sup>-2</sup>(249), spike length (9.7 cm), 1000-grain weight (45.00 g), biological yield (8649 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), grain yield (3342 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and harvest index (39%). The combined application of N, Zn, and HA had significantly affected wheat yield and yield components. It was concluded that N at the rate of 160 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, Zn 12 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and HA 10 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> significantly increased yield and yield components of wheat.</p> Anas Iqbal Haneef Raza Maid Zaman Rayyan Khan Muhammad Adnan Abdullah Khan Syeda Wajeeha Gillani Shad Khan Khalil Copyright (c) 2021 JOURNAL OF SOIL, PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT (JSPAE) 2022-02-05 2022-02-05 1 1 50 71 10.56946/jspae.v1i1.11 Rosmarinus officinalis Might be Exploited as a Natural Antifouling Agent: A Potentially Promising Strategy for Curbing Membrane Biofouling <p>Membrane biofouling is the coverage of membrane surfaces due to undesirable development of biofilms causing a decrease and subsequent loss of productivity in water treatment settings. Continuous use of synthetic chemicals against biofouling is inept as it leads to the emergence of multi-antibiotic resistance. Application of natural products such as plants can be apt in curbing biofouling while checking the resistance challenge. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of <em>Rosmarinus officinalis </em>in the control of membrane biofouling. Bacteria from biofouling environments were subjected to a biofilm confirmation test and identified at cultural, morphological, biochemical and molecular levels. Leaves of <em>R</em>.<em>officinalis</em> were extracted in solvents of varying polarity and activities. These extracts were evaluated against bacterial biofilm formation via minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC), minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) and mesocosm bioassays. Biofilm formation was confirmed in 68% of the isolates identified as <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>. The methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of <em>R</em>.<em>officinalis </em>indicated the least MICs (0.313mg/L and 1.25mg/L) against <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>and <em>Staphylococcus aureus,</em> respectively. Both extracts recorded the highest MBIC (50.00%) against<em> Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>. The peak MBEC (57.88%) was obtained from the methanol extract against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and this same extract inhibited 56.23% density of bacterial biofilms on glass slides.The methanol and ethyl acetate crude extracts of <em>R. officinalis</em> appreciably reduced bacterial biofilms; hence, this plant can be exploited as a natural antifouling agent, with reduced toxicity and low risk of resistance.</p> Abdulkadir Rabiu Salisu Shamsuddeen Umar Abdullahi Hassan Kawo Cosa Sekelwa Copyright (c) 2021 JOURNAL OF SOIL, PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT (JSPAE) 2022-03-10 2022-03-10 1 1 72 88 10.56946/jspae.v1i1.15 Productivity and the Qualitative Response of Sorghum to Different Planting Patterns and Various Cultivars <p>Planting patterns and different cultivars play a significant role in forage crops quality and productivity. Therefore, we conducted a field experiment under different planting patterns and cultivars to evaluate sorghum crop yield, yield components, and quality at Agronomic Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan, in 2015. The experiment consists of three sorghum cultivars (Jawar 2002, Sorghum-2011, and JS-2002) with a seed rate of 75 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>at different planting patterns (P1=60 cm × 20 cm, P2=50cm × 24 cm, and P3=340 cm × 30 cm). Results showed that sorghum 2011 resulted in higher growth and qualitative attributes than other cultivars. For example, increase in plant height (237.11 cm), dry weight plant<sup>-1</sup> (40.61 g), forage yield (57.66 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>), crude protein contents (6.12 %), fiber contents (32.12 %) and ash contents (8.73%) was observed in sorghum 2011 as compared to other cultivars. Whereas, among planting pattern P<sub>3</sub> (40 x 30 cm ) produced maximum plant height (236.33 cm), leaves plant<sup>-1</sup>( 13.66), stem diameter (1.09 cm), forage yield (55.52 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>), dry matter yield (18.53 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>) and crude protein contents (6.06 %) as compared to P1 and P2. This study suggested that the cultivar sorghum 2011 with a planting pattern of 40 x 30 cm is a promising option to improve yield, yield components and quality of sorghum crop.</p> Muhammad Asim Muhammad Israr Khan Abdul Rab Copyright (c) 2021 JOURNAL OF SOIL, PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT (JSPAE) 2022-03-10 2022-03-10 1 1 89 101 10.56946/jspae.v1i1.12