Journal of Zoology and Systematics <p><strong>Journal of </strong><strong> Zoology and </strong><strong>Systematics</strong> is an international journal dedicated to the advancements in animal sciences throughout the world. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists, students and academics all over the world to promote, share, and discuss various new issues and developments in different areas of animal sciences. All manuscripts must be prepared in English and are subject to a rigorous and fair peer-review process. Accepted papers will appear online within 3 weeks followed by a printed hard copies.</p> en-US (Dr. Laiba Shafique) (Dr. Laiba Shafique) Wed, 29 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Behavioral abnormalities in Labeo Rohita Under the Acute Exposure of Organophosphate Insecticide, Chlorpyrifos <p>Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a widely used organophosphate pesticide which has an unfavorable impact on the aquatic ecosystem. This work was designed to compute the LC<sub>50</sub> and lethal concentration (96-hr) of chlorpyrifos for <em>Labeo rohita</em>. The LC<sub>50</sub> and lethal concentration (96-hr) of chlorpyrifos for <em>Labeo rohita</em> was determined as 10.39±0.03 and 15.31±0.05 μgL<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. During acute toxicity test, behavioral changes in <em>Labeo rohita</em> were also observed i.e. rapid opercular movement, profuse mucus secretions, imbalance swimming, increased surface activity, loss of equilibrium, convulsion, body discoloration, and decreased hyperactivity. Jumping of fish out of exposed medium proved the avoidance behavior against pesticide toxicity.</p> Mubashra Ikram, Sajid Abdullah, Dr Huma Naz, Khalid Abbas, Tanveer Ahmed, Iqra Zulfiqar, Nimra Zahid Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Zoology and Systematics Wed, 23 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Acute Intoxication of Metals in Cirrhinus mrigala with Special Reference to the Physiological, Biochemical and Molecular Effects <p>An experiment to assess the changes in hematology, serum biochemistry and DNA integrity in <em>Cirrhinus mrigala</em> exposed to metals was conducted. Results showed that the copper exposure to the fish had more pronounced effects as it resulted in significantly lower RBCs, Hb, Hct and higher WBCs, while Zn exposure showed least toxic effect towards hematological parameters as compared to other metals. Among all the exposure durations of metals, the 96-hr exposure caused maximum negative effects on fish. Lower level of serum Na, Cl, Alb and TP were observed in fish under the exposure of Cu as compared to other metals while K, AST and ALT levels were higher. However, least toxic effect on all above-mentioned parameters were noticed in Zn exposed fish. It is also observed that the highest DNA damage in terms of percent genomic DNA template stability (%GTS) was observed in Cu exposed fish while the Zn exposure to fish resulted in lowest DNA damage. The results revealed maximum squared Euclidean distance between Cu treated fish and the control. This study proposed that the occurrence of toxic metals in aquatic environment has strong impact on hematology, serum biochemistry and DNA integrity of fish.</p> Wardah Hassan, Sajid Abdullah, Sana Ashraf, Shaza Zaheer Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Zoology and Systematics Wed, 23 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Bromelain-Fermented Diets on Digestive Enzyme Activities and Muscle Proximate Composition of Labeo Rohita <p>Plant proteins are considered most suitable to replace fish meal because they are cheap, readily available, and abundant. However, plant proteins are not digested efficiently in fish due to the presence of complex protein structures. Therefore, this preliminary study was conducted to evaluate the effect of bromelain-fermented plant diets on the digestive enzyme activities and muscle proximate composition of <em>Labeo rohita</em>. For this purpose, healthy fingerlings with an average initial weight of 10±0.2 g were procured and acclimatized under laboratory conditions. Then, 20 fingerlings were transferred to each of 20 glass aquaria (160 L capacity) in three replicates. Five diets were prepared using plant meals and were fermented using 10, 20, 30 and 40% bromelain powder for 48 hours at 55°C. The control diet was not fermented. Fermented diets were fed to fish for 90 days, and then digestive enzyme activities and muscle proximatecomposition were determined. Fish fed bromelain-fermented diets (10-40%) showed a significant increase in digestive enzyme activities (protease and lipase) compared with the control group. However, no significant effect was observed on the amylase activities in fish fed bromelain-fermented diets. Muscle proximate composition revealed that crude protein (CP) contents were increased while crude fat (CF) contents were decreased in fish fed fermented diets compared with the control group. However, no significant differences were observed in moisture and ash contents. In conclusion, fish fed fermented diets showed enhanced activities of digestive enzymes (protease and lipase) and crude protein contents in the muscle of <em>L. rohita</em>. Therefore, it is recommended to conduct a detailed trial on bromelain fermentation.</p> Tehmina Yaseen, Mahroze Fatima, Syed Zakir Hussain Shah, Wazir Ali, Samra Qudratullah Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Zoology and Systematics Wed, 30 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Microplastic Pollution on Marine Environment: a Mini Review <p>Global awareness of microplastic contamination and its effects on the environment has grown. Plastics are resistant to breakdown and penetrate aquatic environments and are ultimately easily accessible to a wide range of aquatic animals and ultimately transported along the food web. Microplastics in cells and tissues have long-term consequences for marine organisms. A major factor in the spread of microplastics to the environment is their high adsorption capacity on the water surface. Microplastics and persistent organic pollutants interact to make the pollutants even more dangerous to living things. Microplastic pollution and its impact on the ecological environment have attracted worldwide attention. To effectively control microplastic pollution, there is a need to understand how Microplastics affect the ecological environment. This review discusses the formation, transfer and distribution of Micro plastics and the current physical, chemical and biological impacts on the environment. It is crucial to prevent plastic additives' overuse and enact laws and regulations to control plastic waste on account of the current threats posed by Microplastics to marine life and human health. We can eliminate marine litter by establishing plastic recycling schemes in the future or by promoting plastic awareness programs through both social and informational media.</p> Zainab Riaz, Dr.shakeela parveen, Muhammad Tayyab, Urwah Ishaque, Saman Shabbir, Mehwish Sultana, Zunaira Faiz, Zainab Shafqat Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Zoology and Systematics Wed, 29 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Insights Into Green Synthesized and Chemical Synthesized Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications <p>Nanotechnology currently garners substantial attention due to its capacity to alter metals' chemical, physical, and optical attributes through nanosizing. Consequently, a significant emphasis exists on devising novel approaches that utilize biological sources to synthesize diverse nanoparticles with specific sizes and compositions. Most current approaches are costly, environmentally harmful, and inefficient in using materials and energy. The properties of nanoparticles are affected by a range of factors such as time, temperature, pH, and ambient conditions. The potential of eco-friendly nanoparticles is also evident in agriculture, which can safeguard the environment and enhance agricultural productivity. Moreover, the thorough characterization of synthesized nanoparticles is paramount, especially in their potential applications in drug delivery and biomedicine. Green-synthesized nanoparticles excel in biocompatibility and sustainability, while chemically-synthesized nanoparticles provide precise control and functional versatility. The choice between these approaches depends on specific biomedical demands, cost factors, and the desire for sustainable healthcare solutions. Harnessing the strengths of both synthesis methods holds the potential to revolutionize biomedical applications, advancing healthcare accessibility and efficacy. This review paper mainly focuses on the green synthesis, chemical synthesis, economic impact and biomedical application.</p> Mahreen Fatima, Maham Fatima Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Zoology and Systematics Mon, 05 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000