Journal of Zoology and Systematics <p style="margin: 0in;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Journal of Zoology and Systematics is an open peer-reviewed journal that considers articles and reviews articles on all aspects of animal sciences.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in;"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">ISSN:</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;"> 3005-8309</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in;"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Frequency:</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;"> Semiannual</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in;"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Access:</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;"> Open</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in;"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Publication Charges:</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;"> <a href="">Click here</a></span></p> <p style="margin: 0in;"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Quick Submission: <a href="">CLICK HERE TO SUBMIT</a></span></strong></p> en-US (Dr. Laiba Shafique) (Journal of Zoology and Systematics) Wed, 15 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Diagnosis and Vaccination of Animals that are Affected by Foot and Mouth Disease <p>A virus that is both highly contagious and economically detrimental, foot and mouth disease primarily impacts animals possessing cloven hooves, including cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The FMD virus, responsible for causing foot and mouth disease, exists in seven distinct serotypes, complicating the challenges associated with prevention and control. The main ways that the virus spreads are through direct contact between susceptible and infected animals, contaminated food, and aerosolized viral particles. Owing to its ease of propagation, epidemics can quickly spread throughout cattle populations, resulting in significant financial losses. Fast and accurate diagnosis is crucial to halt the spread of FMD and safeguard the livestock industry. Clinical examination, serological testing, and virus isolation are examples of conventional diagnostic techniques. Several methods like Real-Time Quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), RT-LAMP, Sandwich ELISA, Complement Fixation test (CFT) and PCR have become essential tools for FMD diagnosis in recent years. These techniques make it possible to identify the virus quickly and precisely, which facilitates the adoption of containment strategies and quick decision-making. Restrictions on migration, immunization, and the culling of diseased animals are all effective control measures. Nonetheless, the management of FMD continues to be based on prevention. Overcoming FMD in the future involves vaccination, strict bio-security protocols on farms, monitoring, and outbreak readiness planning. Sustained investigation and attentiveness are essential to effectively address this persistent problem.</p> Anza Amir, Iram Qadeer, Sidra Munir, Kashifa Ayoub, Dur -e-Shahwar Marium, Habiba Kalsoom Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 01 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Temperature, pH, Salinity and Dissolved Oxygen on Fishes <p>Environmental factors, including temperature, pH, salinity, and dissolved oxygen, are paramount in shaping fish physiology, behavior, and survival. Fish, being highly responsive to these environmental shifts, undergo profound changes in metabolism, growth, and overall performance. Specifically, temperature variations can have acute or long-term effects, pH changes disrupt ion balance and respiratory efficiency, salinity affects osmoregulation and ion dynamics, and dissolved oxygen levels are fundamental for respiration and metabolic health. Understanding these intricacies is not just academic; it's crucial for fisheries management, conservation strategies, and anticipating the ramifications of broader environmental alterations. This review offers an in-depth analysis of these environmental impacts on fish, underscoring the significance of each factor in their physiology, adaptive behaviors, and ecological context.</p> Amna Marium, Ahmad Manan Mustafa Chatha, Saima Naz, Muhammad Farhan Khan, Warda Safdar, Iqra Ashraf Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 02 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Excessive Use of Pesticides Is a Risk Factor to Fishes: A Review on its Effects and Control Strategies <p>Pesticides are the chemical compounds, used to kill pests, including insects, rodents, fungi, unwanted plants and possess unique physical and chemical properties. These are classified into various classes on the basis of different characteristics like chemical composition, function and target animals, they kill. These are widely used to control diseases by killing their vectors like mosquitoes and gain high agriculture production. However, these pesticides are also very toxic to many non-targeted animals, especially fish. Uncontrolled and irregular consumption of these chemicals can be responsible for the death of fishes even their sub-lethal concentration can affect their various organ and its functions. Aquatic resources and aquatic animals are precious assets, as they give high productivity and protein yield. Fish contains high level of vitamins and minerals which are essential for normal growth. Aquatic animal and sea food increase national economy by providing employment chances. Use of pesticides is increasing in agriculture, which is disastrous to public health and aquatic ecosystem as well. Pesticides are continuously entering aquatic system, where they accumulate in fishes which are in return eaten by man and in this way they get diseased by pesticides. Therefore there is a need to adopt best management practices to protect water qualities and ultimately fishes.</p> Nimra Tahir, Aadab Akhtar, Moazama Batool , Qurat Ul Ain Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 19 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Study of Whole Body Proximate Composition, Dressing Losses and Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Muscle Tissues of Wild and Farm Raised Labeo Rohita <p>The muscle tissues of wild and farm raised rohu were analyzed for proximate composition (Crude protein, crude fat, ash, and dry matter) and uptake of heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr) using the standard protocols. For this purpose, wild fish samples were collected from the Khanpur Canal, Sheikhupura, and farmed fish samples from a local fish market in Lahore. The results showed that the concentration (%) of protein (17.92±0.36), ash (06.54±0.13), and moisture (76.50±1.53), was observed to be higher in the wild when compared to protein (16.90±0.34), ash (5.07±0.10) and moisture (73.50±1.47) of farm raised rohu. In contrast, crude fat contents were observed to be higher (4.02±0.08) in farm raised rohu than wild (03.65±0.07). In terms of dressing losses, wild fish showed higher (26.37%) losses as compared to farm raised (25.83%). Results showed that in wild and farm fish’s muscles, the trend of the heavy metals was Pb &gt; Cd &gt; Ni &gt; Cr. The findings demonstrated that in comparison to Cd, Ni, and Cr, Pb concentration (ppb) was greater in both wild (128.32.82) and farm raised (111.42.16) rohu. When compared to wild rohu, farmed rohu showed a higher bioaccumulation tendency for Cr and Ni, but Cd and Pb showed the reverse pattern. The findings of this study suggest that fish proximate composition, dressing losses, and bioaccumulation of heavy metals are certainly impacted by the aquatic life of freshwater fish like Labeo rohita both in wild and farmed conditions and these results will be helpful for the aquaculturists as well as the local consumers of the fish.</p> Imtisal Shahid, Remsha Bibi, Dilawar Hussain, Esha Khan, Sidra Bibi, Muhammad Faheem, Fatima Gulzar, Rimsha Munawar Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 16 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Serum Biochemical Parameters of Cirrhinus Mrigala Under Acute Exposure of Arsenic <p>Arsenic, a toxicant of fresh water habitat have damaging effects in fish. The present study was carried out to evaluate the lethal toxicity of As<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> to Cirrhinus mrigala at different exposure durations comprises 24-hour, 48-hour, 72-hour and 96-hour along with the analysis of different serum biochemical parameters. Different constituents of serum such sodium, potassium, Chlorine, urea, protein, glucose, albumin, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were analyzed in control and arsenic exposed groups. The results depicted prominent variations among all parameters of serum under acute exposure of arsenic trioxide. The levels of Na<sup>+</sup>, Cl<sup>-</sup> and albumin were recorded lower at all exposure durations of arsenic as compared to the control group. However, the levels of K<sup>+</sup>, total protein, urea, total glucose, AST and ALT were recorded higher in all arsenic exposed fish groups in comparison to control group. The results indicated that arsenic trioxide has adverse effect on serum biochemical parameters and these serum constituents could be used as bioindicators to assess the toxicity caused by As<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> and thus they help in assessing the health status of fish.</p> Moazama Batool, Rabia Khalid, Qurat Ul Ain, Sadia Maalik, Sajida Mushtaq, Mamoona Mahmood Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 16 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Studies on the Use of Aquatic Food in Pakistan <p>The natural resources of Pakistan, such as the Arabian Sea, the Indus Delta, dams, lakes, and mountain streams, present a variety of marine and inland fisheries potentials. These resources support numerous species with dietary and economic value. Fish and other aquatic food are major sources of protein for native people and animal populations worldwide. Fish accounts for 7% of the protein in diet and 17% in animal protein. Fish production in Pakistan rose from 214,231 metric tonnes in 1973 to 733,025 metric tonnes in 2021 at a rate of 4.9% per annum. During the same period, the amount of fish used for human consumption went from 99,368 metric tonnes to 500,866, at an annual rate of 9.7%. Fish export had increased at the rate of 18.6% from 24,623 metric tonnes in 1980 to 217,030 metric tonnes in 2021. The export values reached 496 million US$ in 2022-23. In 2021, fish imports totalled 5,770 metric tonnes. Fish for human consumption in aquatic food chains are typically sold in canned, frozen, cured, or fresh forms. Fresh marketing, freezing, and canning all require special equipment, which involves high capital costs. However, curing is a simple, low-cost preservation process that doesn't involve much in the way of material or capital expenditures. Frozen fishery products are dominant with 85%, followed by live (7%), dried (6%) and chilled (2%). Fish is also processed into meal before being added to animal feed; the bulk of processed fishmeal is used for chicken feed. 16% of the total fish production was converted to fishmeal production. With 25 currently in operation in Karachi and 30 in Gwadar, the country’s fish processing facilities are somewhat old and equipped with outdated machinery. Particularly for rural populations, fisheries resources offer sustainable development, employment opportunities, and financial rewards. Additionally, it has been noted that export statistics for fisheries are not adequately reported, which is necessary for them to be comparable to those of other countries. The study also provides sources for fisheries statistics.</p> Muhammad Wasim Khan, Ghulam Abbas Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000