Diagnosis and Vaccination of Animals that are Affected by Foot and Mouth Disease
Keywords:Animals, foot and mouth disease, laboratory test , transmission, vaccination
A virus that is both highly contagious and economically detrimental, foot and mouth disease primarily impacts animals possessing cloven hooves, including cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The FMD virus, responsible for causing foot and mouth disease, exists in seven distinct serotypes, complicating the challenges associated with prevention and control. The main ways that the virus spreads are through direct contact between susceptible and infected animals, contaminated food, and aerosolized viral particles. Owing to its ease of propagation, epidemics can quickly spread throughout cattle populations, resulting in significant financial losses. Fast and accurate diagnosis is crucial to halt the spread of FMD and safeguard the livestock industry. Clinical examination, serological testing, and virus isolation are examples of conventional diagnostic techniques. Several methods like Real-Time Quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), RT-LAMP, Sandwich ELISA, Complement Fixation test (CFT) and PCR have become essential tools for FMD diagnosis in recent years. These techniques make it possible to identify the virus quickly and precisely, which facilitates the adoption of containment strategies and quick decision-making. Restrictions on migration, immunization, and the culling of diseased animals are all effective control measures. Nonetheless, the management of FMD continues to be based on prevention. Overcoming FMD in the future involves vaccination, strict bio-security protocols on farms, monitoring, and outbreak readiness planning. Sustained investigation and attentiveness are essential to effectively address this persistent problem.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.