Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water of Tribal Districts Ex-FATA Pakistan
Keywords:Drinking water, water quality, heavy metals, human health, environment
This study was conducted to evaluate the six heavy metals zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), and cadmium (Cd) in seven water samples collected from seven tribal districts (Bajaur, Mohmand, Khyber, Orakzai, Kurram, South Waziristan and North Waziristan) from Ex-FATA Pakistan. All samples were digested using the wet digestion method and the digested samples were analyzed for heavy metals using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results from water samples from seven districts were compared to the recommended standard value from the World Health Organization and the Environmental Protection Agency. The results obtained from the analysis for nickel (Ni) showed that the highest concentration (0.093 mg/l) was reported in the water of Khyber district, while the lowest concentration (0.011 mg/l) was found in the water of South Orakzai district. Iron (Fe) had the highest concentration (0.32 mg/l) in the water of Orakzai district. The highest concentration (0.19 mg/L) of chromium (Cr) was reported in the water of Orakzai district. In addition, the result showed that the highest concentration (0.87 mg/l) of zinc (Zn) was in Orakzai district, the highest concentration (1.92 mg/l) of copper (Cu) in Khyber and Mohmand districts ( 1.92 mg/l), while the highest concentration (0.0029 mg/l) of cadmium (Cd) was measured in the water of Orakzai district. Therefore, based on comparison to WHO and EPA standard values, this study shows that the water of all tribal districts is safe for drinking water purposes
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